Review Articles.

Congenital infection

Congenital infection is a relatively rare, infectious intrauterine complication. Sometimes also called fetal infections due to pathogenesis – transplacental transmission from mother to fetus. The pathogen can be the …

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Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract

Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) can be detected by the prenatal screening (ultrasound – hydronephrosis, megaureter, renal agenesis). Postnatal investigations include proper clinical examination (increased risk …

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Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) or acute kidney injury (AKI) features decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that leads to electrolyte and water metabolism disturbances and distortion of acid …

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Disorders of sex development

Disorders of sex development (DSD) were previously called intersex, incidence is approximately 1:5000 of live births. DSD encompass inadequate production of sex hormones, inappropriate hormonal functioning and gonad developmental anomalies. There is …

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Seizures

There is a number of different types of seizure activity in newborns. Seizure types subtle seizures (grimace, blinking, yawning, salivation, cycling, apnea) myoclonus clonic seizures (unifocal, multifocal) …

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Congenital CNS malformations

Anencephalus rare due to prenatal ultrasound screening the absence of a major portion of the brain (telencephalon – hemispheres and neocortex), skull and scalp rostral neural …

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Intraventricular Hemorrhage

The hemorrhage in the preterm infants usually originates in the germinal matrix (temporary developmental structure with significant vascular supply due to massive mitotic and metabolic activity). The …

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Periventricular Leukomalacia

The central nervous system of extremely preterm infants is highly susceptible to perinatal injuries due to the presence of immature vasculature in the germinal matrix and …

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Chylothorax

Lymph is generated in the interstitium and carried in lymphatic vessels in a unidirectional flow, joining the venous system near the junction of the left internal …

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Hypotension

Hypotension and hemodynamic instability in the early postnatal period are common diagnoses within preterm population and has been associated with adverse short-term and long-term outcomes. There …

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