Review Articles.

Definitions

Newborn is categorised based on Birth weight (BW), Gestational age (GA) and their relationship:Gestational age• preterm newborns (< 37+0)• term newborn (37+0 to 41+6)• postterm …

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Resuscitation

Perinatal asphyxia remains one of the most common indications for postnatal resuscitation. The necessary prerequisites for successful resuscitation are properly equipped rooms (delivery suite, neonatal wards with …

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Prematurity

Preterm birth is defined as any birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation (37+0). It has been estimated to account for up to 10 % of …

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Apnea

Apneas represent another important group of respiratory/ventilation dysfunctions in newborns (apart from perinatal asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome). They are generally defined as a cessation of breathing movements and air …

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Postnatal adaptation

Neonatal adaptation is a complex process that involves multiple adaptive changes within several organ systems. For successful transition from intrauterine to extrauterine environment, relatively rapid conversion to air …

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Oxygen therapy

We should attempt to maintain normoxemic oxygenation in order to prevent hypoxic injury (mainly in the cerebral tissue). On the other hand, oxygen should be carefully titrated to …

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Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder (fibrovascular proliferation) of developing retina in preterm infants. It is characterised by disorganized growth of abnormal new blood …

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Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) is characterized by postnatally persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arteries, causing increased pulmonary arterial resistance. As a consequence, right-left shunting (extra-pulmonary shunts) …

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Hyperbilirubinemia

Hyperbilirubinemia is defined as serum bilirubin concentration > 25 μmol/l. However, clinical presentation (jaundice (icterus) – yellowish colouring of the skin, sclera and mucosa) is apparent in …

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Anemia

Hemoglobin production begins around the third week of pregnancy in the cytoplasm of embryonic red blood cells in the yolk sac. Hematopoietic stem cells then colonize other …

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