Collection of Neonatology Articles

Congenital infection

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Congenital infection is a relatively rare, infectious intrauterine complication. Sometimes also called fetal infections due to pathogenesis – transplacental transmission from mother to fetus. The pathogen can be the cause …

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Late onset sepsis

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Late onset sepsis (LOS) is an infectious complication in newborns that have clinical presentation after the first 72 hours of life. Sometimes also called nosocomial due to pathogenesis – contact …

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Early onset sepsis

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Early onset sepsis (EOS) is an infectious complication in newborns that have clinical presentation within the first 72 hours of life. Sometimes also called perinatal due to pathogenesis – vertical …

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Acute Abdomen

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Acute abdominal events or conditions arise from a number of diseases based on the predominant pathophysiology. They require urgent revision. Basic division of acute abdomen in newborns: congenital gastrointestinal malformations …

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Necrotizing enterocolitis

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Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) belongs to acute abdomen events (inflammatory subgroup). It is typical disease of extreme prematurity – incidence is inversely proportional to advancing gestational age (1-5% of newborns admitted …

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Congenital gastrointestinal malformations

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Congenital gastrointestinal (GIT) anomalies can be sometimes detected by the prenatal screening (ultrasound – polyhydramnios, direct visualisation of affected GIT; biochemistry – elevated alpha-fetoprotein in gastroschisis and omphalocele). Postnatal investigations …

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Trombophilia

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Inherited thrombophilia permanent condition that can increase the risk for thrombosis formation in presence of other factors or triggers (see acquired conditions below) Leiden mutation of factor 5 = the …

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Bleeding disorders

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Newborns (preterm in particular) have relatively low levels of pro-coagulation factors (vitamin K dependent factors), diminished platelet functions (their levels are similar to adults), as well as low anti-coagulation factors …

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Leucocyte abnormalities

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There are significant differences in white blood cell (WBC) total and differential counts between newborns and older children. Alterations in WBC total and differential count can be an early sign …

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Polycythemia

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Polycythemia is defined by venous hemoglobin concentration > 220 g/l or by hematocrit value > 0.65 during the first week of life. It correlates clinically with hyperviscosity syndrome. The common …

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